成員 羅祥禎


 (國際商務學系四年級)  

Economize the energy:

First life has no place no festival "  Whether ink ".

 

Preface

 Under global warm crisis that take, climatic anomaly is it rank world 6 big country to make, there is Lu Zhou of stars of the Southern Hemisphere --The rainfall over the past ten years of Australia repeatly reaches the new low point, the water level of the reservoir is reducing constantly, the red alert of the low water level appears again and again. ,Encounter the most serious crisis of lack of water since the dawn of human civilization. This sweeps across the whole Australian great drought of a century , disasters pile up on one another in Australia that makes the water resource originally in short, must reach bit degree relatively especially water , get from government folk to launch a succession of increase income measures actively, it is to is it use this depend on water resource that support the family to treasure to be. And the opposition of Australian Union even releases good will , advise the opposition and government to truce for three months, sit down and discuss the countermeasure of fighting a drought together, should be to the national severe water crisis.

In order to answer the great drought of a century , Australia gets from the government among the people, conceives the way to develop resources and reduce expenditures in all neat strength . The government, does not sing from the matter of fundamental importance of resource management of whole water heartily, it is to keep the precious water resource here to be; The province of Queensland has already determined that from next year , 25% people's livelihood will regard recycled water retrieved as the water source with water; And the folk and surging consciousness of saving water and intention are economized on water and invented and taken action limitlessly, represent Australian's resolution dealt with actively correctly that the water resource crisis represents even more.

Walk and economize on water in strength that Australian government and the people fight a drought

The water-saving plan of people's livelihood that another one is more special is directing against Asian Chinese's water plan of restaurant province pursued . Australian new south Willes community's committee of ethnic minority in the province gets support from saving the water fund of provincial government, ' the Asia type restaurant saves the water plan ' to popularize one in Chinese commercial community at present. The purpose of this plan is to reduce the water consumption of the Asia type restaurant, research shows that the most effective water-saving method is to install the water-saving kitchen range , replace the traditional kitchen range . The water affair office supplies water in the area in Sydney, the Chinese-style restaurant accounts for 50% of all Asia type restaurants, replacing the traditional cooking stove with water-saving kitchen range can save about 50% of the water, and the government will offer subsidies to help the restaurant to be bought with the kitchen range of installation ' economize on water '.

Australian's consciousness of saving water runs high  Every water-saving pickets of incarnation

Australians' consciousness of saving water quite runs high, while implementing the fourth measure of restricting water supply, forbid watering courtyard flowers and plants, but Zeng someone has not abode by the regulations , has utilized the noload position to be watered stealthily , the result is informed against by the neighbour, police will come to open to fine soon, therefore can find out Australian's degree of attention to economizing on water . And the everybody water-saving spirit of pickets, let Australia is it is it have effect deeply to promote to economize on water too.

This is the device that water which locals will finish using utilizes again

 

The recycled water becomes drinking water  Achieve the precedent of the world

Attack serious the universe drought , force the east ' Queensland ' to take the lead in retrieving sewages, and then make drinking water, this will be the first scheme of using the source of water of circulation within the territory of Australia , it is the rare precedent of whole world too. In province of Nan'ao of the universe the most of Australia, local peasants have already used the recycled water to irrigate the crops, but has not implemented the recycled drinking water yet. Though there is similar experience in other countries, from 1976 such as the tangerine town of California of U.S.A., inject the waste water through purification into the underground aquifer of the soil again; One gram of cisterns of Europe of north Virginia pours into the recycled water of circulation too; And Singapore is from 2003, in the people's livelihood water supplied, 1% comes from the recycled source of water , but Australian authorities plan to use and grow the proportion of water and up to 25% the whole citizen in recycled source of water at present, will become the first of the world too. Though residents object to it, the universe drought is really too serious, the water level of the reservoir drops to the degree of warning, so Australian government has no option, is it carry out from next year these recycled ink plan to determine.

Groundwater or the sea water said groundwater or the sea water would lack in Australia water, can't realize for the moment. The endless and azure sea water surrounds Australia, why lack water? It was fresh water that lacked. In all sorts of ways to solve water in short, the method saving effort that the groundwater seems to save money most, it only needs dozens of Macao to divide to supply water of 1 liter. But this can't solve the problem completely , and not the long-term plan, of today water resource deficient situation, because in some time in the past to a certain extent, the use for groundwater is too radical. In Australia, the desalinization is an extremely popular topic, the latest tendency is to desalt seawater with wind energy. Sound definitely a energy-conserving good method , not only economize the water resource but also utilize regenerated energy, do not discharge the carbon dioxide extraly during the process of desalting seawater. The desalinization factory of Perth of Australia costs more than 300 million dollars, it is one of the largest desalinization factories in the world, it is many one in the world with the desalinization factory where wind energy drove either. This factory can produce nearly 200 million liters of fresh water every day, is nearly equivalent to filling 100 standard swimming pools of the Olympic Games with. Though the whole fabrication cost is expensive , the fresh water cost produced out is not very high.

The water efficiency in the province of Australia marks the chapter- WELS development course and promotes the present situation

                                

 ig. 1. Australian energy efficiency marks the chapter pattern  Fig. 2. The water efficiency in the province of Australia marks the chapter pattern        Fig. 3. Australia's early AAAAA province's water efficiency marks the chapter pattern in grades Australian government's basis promoted the mandatory successful experience that ' energy efficiency marked the chapter ' (such as Fig. 1 ) from 1986, ' the water efficiency in the province will mark the chapter and standard plan ' to implement July 1 , 2005 formally ( Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards, abbreviated as WELS), (such as Fig. two), this, for a mandatory mark chapter system directed against the water utensil of the family. Because Australia is one of the areas that faces the threat on land of the universe most frequently in the world, the implementation of this mandatory mark chapter system may be said that quite unique.

Implement the background

Australia serve the association as far back as 1988 by Australia ink promptly ( Water Service Association of Australia) The province water efficiency of implementing wish nature marks the plan of the chapter (Water Efficiency Rating and Labelling Scheme ) in grades, (such as Fig. three), originally the project of the products only includes the shower nozzle and dish washer, and province water efficiency is only divided into A and AA two grades , increase AAA grade by 1992, increased AAAA and AAAAA two grades again in 2001, the project of the products expanded and contained the nightstool , faucet , washing machine, urinated fighting and flow controller ,etc.. Every products province water efficiency is it must accord with Australia / regulation , New Zealand of national standard to label (AS / NZS 6400, Water-Efficeient Products Rating and Labelling), this AAAAA marks province water efficiency standards at all levels of the chapter like form one. Because it is the wish nature that this marks the system of the chapter in grades, the products supplier marks and hints wishing high voluntarily, unless this product province water efficiency has higher grades , or in order to change the outfit the specific products which feedback the plan (Retrofit Rabate Program ). The Australian government, in order to improve the province water efficiency of the water utensil of the family more effectively even more, and make relevant information fully reveal , the person who lets exertion of different demands can be very clear, determine to mark the chapter and plan to replace AAAAA wish mark chapter plan for many years of conduct with WELS mandatory province water efficiency.

Benefit - whole benefit that it is expected:

The Australian government expects before 2021 years , through the implementation of this plan, every year can be up to benefit of saving 87,200,000 tons of water, among them economizing amount about 50% comes from the washing machine, 25% and comes from shower nozzle , 22% and comes from the nightstool . Pass the consumption of reducing the hot water at the same time , before 2021 years, can reach and reduce benefit which discharges 570,000 tons of carbon dioxide every year .

Australia's water-saving hurricane intention- reward winners and open up the clever thought water-savingly everywhere

Educational schemes- the persons who will win the prize in 2006: Bentleigh West Primary School

Because Bentleigh West primary school has built and is able to bear the garden on land , but the water-saving measures, such as a wetland and implementing the clever water activity,etc. got 5 stars and continued the honor of the school forever in September of 2006. This school took some water-saving measures in the past two years, including replied and bred native country trees , bush and lawn ,etc. and planted other drought-enduring plants etc., the originally large stretch of lawn will be transfered to a practice of forest land on land of native country, not merely reduce water consumption and attract the original living beings kind to be garrisonned in. School this is it incorporate classroom among the activity , implement to economize on water " water- find out about it! Use it flexibly! "Scheme, and turn the theory into the practice, set up include native country plant corridor , and utilize Elster place that brook flow through in the past form one biodiversity wetland ,etc. outdoor classroom; Utilize the drainage system to disperse the torrential rain amount which builds the thing and arrange the rivers of rainwater and the earth's surface to the wetland at the same time . Other way of doing things still includes: Drip faucets and enable saving water of 200.5 tons every year after repairing 10; Store the trough and wait in order to water the garden after setting up 7 of rainwater. These water saved is equivalent to the water yield of 1,500 bathtubs. In addition, they raise in planning containing practice to set up two method , type of flushing toiler among the under construction thing with water continuously forever in building, show that Bentleigh West primary school implements its commitment economized on water for a long time continuously

Products innovation- the persons who will win the prize in 2005: Methven Australia Pty Ltd

Methven is the manufacturers of a shower and running water apparatus, SatinJet shower nozzle technology researched and developed by it has world break-through. Since this product is put out in 2004, it defended bath apparatus to exceed expectancy in the sale of the area of New Zealand and Australia. This kind of shower nozzle technology that Methven develops lets the surface of water squirted by it be wider and more complete, but only need nine liters of water flowers each minute. Technological break-through its place lie in two rivers at the same time via two hole , and make be facing toward another hole gush out / see off each other, destroyed the surface tension because two streams of rivers collide each other , make the rivers squirted relatively gentle and complete, create a kind of " shower of intact and sufficient rivers type " (full-flow shower ) to feel. And because its angle gushing out the note each time is different from having slightly next time, the type of making its spray water attitude is not merely unique , state on empty in dispel some province water that shower nozzle can take place on the market " ". The result is very good too under the state of these kind of shower nozzle in low water pressure, and is suitable for the at present very popular instant hot water system, Methven shows , it is not that the water shower apparatus of every kind of province can be inclusive with Satin Jet, but its main purpose is offering the chance that the masses are economizing on water more.

Policy 1 that five is big to restrict water supply for ever. 1.The system can only be used from eight o'clock in the evening to ten o'clock in the morning to sprinkle water manually.

 2. The system can only be used from ten o'clock in the evening to ten o'clock in the morning to sprinkle water automatically.

 3. It hold water pipe it must connect it have controllable one spray nozzle (can used for not for caring or water flowers). 

4. Unless there are special circumstances , otherwise can not wash the courtyard with the water pipe , the pavement , park in the areas , such as one ,etc..

 5. Before pouring water in the new swimming pool or SPA (more than 2000 liters), must file an application with government's water company and combine cores   

 Accurate. Note: The following situations can wash

 a . Accident, fire , or the urgent state harmful to health. 

b. Confirm about the safe danger thing .

 c. If find that there are grease spots, animal excrement and urine ,etc., water pipe or high-pressure water which control the spray nozzle can only wash once in one season to wash the device to no matter use.

 d. If the pavement is being built maintenance. Must use the high-pressure water to wash the device .

The water secret in family's province is about having the car, the garden, whether turf etc. water flowers and sprinkle water device automatically, list some family province ink method only.

1.About the faucet - Water trough wants remembers using stoppers - Remember repairing the faucet leaking - Don't screw the faucet on excessivly , will damage the dish washer and result in leaking in this way

-Install flow controlling and water air entrainment device additional 
 - Check the water pipe leaking - Prepare the cask at any time

 2. Province key to water in the bathroom 

-Install the flushing toiler device of two sections of types, try one's best to use half flush

- check whether the nightstool leaks, can use the colored dyestuffs to drip water trough , if the nightstool finds colors within 15 minutes, will repair quickly oh. This kind is invisible to leak can be wasted and lost 4000 liters of water in one year! 

- A kind of device is that the rainwater stores water trough , put through that side of the nightstool , do not waste the running water

- turn off the tap while brushing teeth and shaving

- prepare the cask nearby while taking a shower, when wait for the hot water to come out, collect water with the cask, the water can be used for watering flowers, wait towards the nightstool

- To 4 minutes with the time that the time-recorder limits the shower, this can save water and combine province electricity

 It is put that this is the idea fashion which the government sends to the masses - Unless muscle when aching , must not bath - water heater is it insulate against heat the pipeline to use, and install it in the place close to bathroom.

                                                          

                                                          

Temperature is not established too high, it is 3 behaviors of wasting water and energy to use the hot water to add the cold water to make it warm again! Province water key to the kitchen   - Wash fruit vegetables or wash bowl use water , water of trough in the plate , use water that flow

- after being all over to wait until the dish washer, use proper settlement wash just, this not only province water save energy

- unfreeze the food with ink that flow, can place on the overnight

Australian great drought of a century of cool room and wake Australian people's attention to the water resource up , we see Australian between government and folk every proposition that make great efforts actively together because of in conformity with the scheme, water-saving sports have already become a competent ring of Australian resident's daily life strength ; The relative one is in Taiwan not plentiful of water resource , may meet and make be facing toward the threat of lack of water too in the future, we should be more positive to learn from Australia, no matter from the policy , measure, from the heart, there is water as think of the anhydrous bitterness, the province water should be implemented in life, can just have water resource continued forever .

Second、wards overall use "  Nature kinetic energy "  Advance :

The plentiful energy is Australia's most precious assets, besides offering enterprises and a low cost energy of family, export the energy and earn the income over 24 billion dollars too every year, and develop Australia's more competitive industry through the low-priced energy cost. The energy policy goal, in order to build and construct and bring about a prosperous economy , guarantees energy supply's security and pursues the energy to develop continuously forever.

Australian energy present situation

Develop energy resources in all energy, it is the emission of greenhouse gas caused most to use the elementary energy, and the fossil fuel is main energy resources in Australia, including: Petroleum , black coal , natural gas and brown coal , each accounts for 35% , 28% , 19% and 13% ,etc. separately, the recycled energy only accounts for 5%; Among them the gas generates electricity and the recycled energy will be increasingly important . Australia's total energy demand will increase by more than 50% between 2000 and 2020, the annual average rate of increase of coal is 1.1% among them, 2.0% of oil annual average rate of increases, it is for 3.9% in natural gas and energy not other (water conservancy, quality of catching can, wind-force and solar energy) 2.5%. Using it on the situation in other energy, the annual average rate of increase of water conservancy is 0.9%, it can be 2.6% to grow the quality, and 7.7% is the highest with the wind-force and annual average rate of increase of solar energy. Because wind-force and consumption of solar energy increase severely, so need to invest 37 billion dollars in order to develop the energy industry before 2020 years; And as the energy demand increases, will be the greatest challenge how to lower the emission of gas of the greenhouse effectively in the future. The energy sector produced the emission of 68% greenhouses of gas in 2002 in Australia, the proportion would rise to 72% in 2020; Central Africa accounted for 53% transporting the emission of greenhouse gas of energy sector in 2002, the transportation sector accounted for 14%, it exceeds 30% discharging rate of increase to estimate the greenhouse gas of energy sector in 2020 in advance. Because the electricity is the biggest single energy causing the Australian greenhouse gas to discharge, 2/3 that its greenhouse gas produced accounts for the emission of greenhouse gas that the Australian energy always on the alert produces . The trend has shown recently, use electricity cause greenhouse gas emission grow up speed electric consumption grow up speed as slow already, the reason is that the natural gas replaces the brown coal and generates electricity to cause. Only it is still the electric main force of year of base in Australia to generate electricity with coal , and accounts for 92% of the emission of greenhouse gas that the electricity produce . So, it can bring and benefit Australia's economy and environmental protection greatly to discharge technology to lower the greenhouse gas generating electricity with coal. In the following 20 years, expectation wind energy and solar energy will grow up by a wide margin , the coal and oil will be still the most important elementary energy ; Only the raw materials uranium is not considered as energy resources in Australia, because its export is protected strictly, and the cyclical process of whole nuclear fuel is only allowed to use for the peaceful use. Another the electric demand will continue growing up in the following 20 years, the annual average rate of increase will exceed 4%, grow up with speed of 2 times. The Australian electricity accounts for 40% of the elementary energy, in the electric structure between 2000 and 2020, though, the gas generates electricity and the recycled energy have space of growth by a wide margin , it is still the main force of the Australian electricity that 78% generates electricity with coal.

Solar energy city

Offered by Australian government among the fund and name the organization researches and develops a kind of increase photocell daylighting quantity method , make daylighting ability increase by 50%. The research institution expresses, remove the family and boil the kitchen and hot water supply, 10 square meters of electronic solar energy of one set is systematic can supply the electric energy that most families needed .

 A large number of solar energy editions gather the electricity

Using the natural coal gas, the solar energy is regarded as the kinetic energy of Volkswagen means of transport

Use means of transportation of Volkswagen as the kinetic energy of natural gas

                                                                                                    

That I see to is it become well air , environment to make great efforts government Sydney have in Brisben, sufficient various kinds of natural resources of use , the solar energy is spent on maritime means of transportation, the natural gas uses the traffic on the road, and quite a lot of orders of classes of peak of every means of transportation, put out cheap a series of tickets from now to peak period, convenient student and tourist. See though so many of means of transportation of two urban masses in one month when there live, but the air can not be dirty . I still find locals quite courteous to the driver extraly!     

  

 

Neat and clean within the bus

 

Invite the sockets to all possess and economize the device with the electricity

 

In Australia's locality, no matter the household or the general hotels , commercial buildings have this facility on every socket, it is the release knob lying above each socket, it will just be open to open the release knob electricity first when you should use the electric apparatus, electric apparatus could use, is it would not waste and then extra electric rate to shut off release knob when need to use the electric apparatus in this case.

 

There is a switch in addition above the socket

 

Thirdresources are retrieved again "  The rubbish is turned into the gold "

                                                             

Big sale of the garage  

 

Often see the big sale of the garage in the film but see in the never real border. This journey, let me find to this local's offal is utilized unintentionally, and can also make the stiver . Most people will be learnt every news with big sale of garages by the local tabloid, is it can receive the most heavy benefit as you with the cheap price when not need othersing to have.

 

The thin rubbish taking 

 

Do shopping and just find that the plastic bag or container bag that the locality gives is suitable and thin after reaching every local supermarket and pedlar. Feel very inconvenient at the beginning , hate anxious to can rupture once carrying the heavy object, in fact happened several times and mentioned phenomenon that the heavy object rupture too , but found later it was that this was a kind of environmental protection method too. Though locals use the shopping bag not to prevail , but the plastic bag of Taiwan is a local thin plastic bag, the container bag is several times thick, that is to say that all kinds of local sacks need to use a lot of just in fact one which our Taiwan used. No matter earth until the fact that little detail Australian work hard side in that own environment is a mental and physical efforts to the limit of the earth of ours even really in view of this.

                                                                          

                        

 

 

 

Thin container bag that the locality does shopping and gives

 

Utilize and collect the rainwater as the domestic water

 

In the view that Brisben finds one very peculiar , always see that the house backyard drains off water in the tower , think at the beginning that often the lack of water restricts water supply in the locality, so every household will just think that Taiwan installs so many water towers equally, but each one stores running water not to just actually know these water towers under inquiring in detail, most water towers use rainwater of deposits! ! And equipment the resident method that oneself figure out actually, they stand up the rainwater deposit, used for as the water in life, as if water flowers , wash the car , lavatory ¡­.It is to utilize this water tower to wait a moment. Neither will exceed every consumption with water in this case but also can fully apply to every point of water .

    

 

Brisben resident exactly drain off water in the tower